Ratio4TA Vocabulary Specification 0.3

Namespace Document 9 December 2013

This version:
http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3/ (rdf)
Latest version:
http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/ (rdf)
Previous version:
http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v2/ (rdf)
Status:
Work in progress
Author:
Rakebul Hasan, INRIA, France
Advisors:
Fabien Gandon, INRIA, France
Pierre-Antoine Champin, Université Lyon 1, France
IRI:
http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. This copyright applies to the Ratio4TA Vocabulary Specification and accompanying documentation in RDF.

Ratio4TA uses W3C's open and freely available Web standards: RDF technology and The PROV Ontology. Ratio4TA also uses the Named Graphs Vocabulary.


Abstract

Ratio4TA (interlinked explanations for triple assertions) is an OWL ontology for describing explanation metadata. It allows describing metadata about data, reasoning processes, results, data derivations, rules, and software applications. Ratio4TA extends the W3C PROV Ontology. This promotes interoperability by enabling data consumers process explanation metadata according to W3C PROV standards.

Table of Content

  1. Ratio4TA at a Glance
  2. Example
  3. Classes
  4. Object Properties
  5. Namespace Declarations

Ratio4TA at a Glance

The figure below shows the core classes and properties ofRatio4TA.

Simplified model

Example

This example shows how to encode explanation metadata using Ratio4TA. In this example, an application consumes data from DBPedia and GeoNames and infers new information.

The following code segment shows the data that our example application consumes from DBPedia. Note that this data is inside a dereferenceable named graph which allows us to refer to this piece of data from explanation metadata.

# From Dbpedia
lodapp:inputData1 {
  dbpedia:Philadelphia owl:sameAs geonames:4560349 .
}

The application also consumes the following GeoNames data.

# From GeoNames
lodapp:inputData2 {
  geonames:4560349 gn:parentFeature geonames:5205788.
}

# geonames:4560349 is the GeoNames concept for Philadelphia .
# geonames:5205788 is the GeoNames concept for Philadelphia County .

The application applies a rule to its consumed data and infers new information. The rule roughly translates to natural language as following:

IF ANY PLACE ?A IS SAME AS ?B AND ?B HAS A PARENT FEATURE ?C
THEN ?A HAS A PARENT FEATURE ?C.
    

The application infers the following statement applying this rule.

# Derived
lodapp:data1 {
  dbpedia:Philadelphia gn:parentFeature geonames:5205788.
}

In the following code segment, we show the encoding of explanation metadata using Ratio4TA. We use r4ta as the namespace prefix for the terms of Ratio4TA in the example encoding.

# Explanation
lodapp:explanation1 {

  # Type declarations 
  lodapp:explanation1 r4ta:explains lodapp:data1 .
  lodapp:explanation1 rdf:type r4ta:ExplanationBundle .
  lodapp:reasoningProcess1 rdf:type r4ta:ReasoningProcess .
  lodapp:corese rdf:type r4ta:SoftwareApplication .
  lodapp:geoFeatureRule rdf:type r4ta:Rule .
  lodapp:result1 rdf:type r4ta:Result .
  lodapp:data1 rdf:type r4ta:OutputData .
  lodapp:inputData1 rdf:type r4ta:InputData .
  lodapp:inputData2 rdf:type r4ta:InputData .
  lodapp:derivation1 rdf:type r4ta:DataDerivation .

  # Reasoning process
  lodapp:reasoningProcess1 r4ta:performedBy lodapp:corese .
  lodapp:reasoningProcess1 r4ta:usedData lodapp:inputData1.
  lodapp:reasoningProcess1 r4ta:usedData lodapp:inputData2.
  lodapp:reasoningProcess1 r4ta:computed lodapp:result1 .
  lodapp:reasoningProcess1 r4ta:produced lodapp:data1 .

  # Computed result
  lodapp:result1 r4ta:resultReasoner lodapp:corese .

  # Output data
  lodapp:data1 r4ta:derivedFrom lodapp:inputData1 .
  lodapp:data1 r4ta:derivedFrom lodapp:inputData2 .
  lodapp:data1 r4ta:belongsTo lodapp:result1 .
  lodapp:data1 r4ta:derivedBy lodapp:derivation1 .

  # Data derivation
  lodapp:derivation1 r4ta:usedRule lodapp:geoFeatureRule .
  lodapp:derivation1 r4ta:wasInvolvedInComputing lodapp:result1 .
  lodapp:derivation1 r4ta:derivationReasoner lodapp:corese .
  lodapp:derivation1 r4ta:performedAsPartOf lodapp:reasoningProcess1 .
}

Classes

Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#Data

A data is a set of RDF statements.

has super-classes
has sub-classes
InputDatac, OutputDatac
is in domain of
:derivedFromop, :hasExplanationop
is in range of
:derivedFromop

DataDerivationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#DataDerivation

A data derivation represents a derivation that is performed as part of a reasoning process.

has super-classes
is in domain of
:derivationReasonerop, :performedAsPartOfop, :usedRuleop, :wasInvolvedComputingop
is in range of
:derivedByop

InputDatac back ( po ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#InputData

An input data represents an input data (a set of RDF statements) used by a reasoning process.

has super-classes
is in range of
:usedDataop

ExplanationBundlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#ExplanationBundle

An explanation bundle is a set of RDF statements which explain how a data was derived.

has super-classes
is in domain of
:summarizationOfop
is in range of
:hasExplanationop, :summarizationOfop

OutputDatac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#OutputData

An output data represents an output data by a reasoning process.

has super-classes
is in domain of
:belongsToop, :derivedByop
is in range of
:producedop

ReasoningProcessc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#ReasoningProcess

A reasoning process represents a reasoning process of a software application. A reasoning process uses input data and computes results. Each of these computed results includes output data. Data derivations may be performed as part of a reasoning process which may lead to producing new data that were not explicitly given in the input data.

has super-classes
is in domain of
:computedop, :performedByop, :producedop, :usedDataop
is in range of
:performedAsPartOfop

Resultc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#Result

A result represents a result computed by a reasoning proces.

has super-classes
is in domain of
:resultReasonerop
is in range of
:belongsToop, :computedop, :wasInvolvedComputingop

Rulec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#Rule

A rule represents a rule that a reasoning process uses for a data derivation.

has super-classes
is in range of
:usedRuleop

SoftwareApplicationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#SoftwareApplication

A software application consumes and produces data.

has super-classes
is in range of
:derivationReasonerop, :performedByop, :resultReasonerop

Object Properties

:belongsToop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#belongsTo

A reasoning process uses input data and computes results. Each of these computed results includes output data. The belongsTo property specifies an output data belongs to a result.
has super-properties
has domain
has range
is inverse of

:computedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#computed

A reasoning process computes results. The computed property specifies an reasoning process computes a result.
has super-properties
has domain
has range

:containsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#contains

A reasoning process uses input data and computes results. Each of these computed results includes output data. The contains property specifies a result contains an output data.

is inverse of

:derivationReasonerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#derivationReasoner

A software application performs derivations. The derivationReasoner property specifies a data derivation performed by a software application.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:derivedByop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#derivedBy

A data derivation uses rules and derives output data. The derivedBy property specifies an output data derived by a data derivation.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:derivedFromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#derivedFrom

A data derivation transforms a data into another, constructs a data into another, or updates a data, resulting in a new one. Note that by data we mean an instance of the Data class. The derivedFrom property specifies a data derived from a data.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:hasExplanationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#hasExplanation

An explanation bundle contains statements about how an instance of data was derived. The hasExplanation property specifies a data explained by an explanation bundle.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
is inverse of
  • :explainsop

:explainsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#explains

An explanation bundle contains statements about how an instance of data was derived. The explains property specifies an explanation bundle that explains a data.

is inverse of

:performedAsPartOfop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#performedAsPartOf

A reasoning process performs data derivations. The performedAsPartOf specifies a data derivation is performed as part of a reasoning process.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:performedByop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#performedBy

A software application performs a reasoning process. The performedBy property specifies a reasoning process is performed by a software application.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:producedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#produced

A reasoning process computes results and a computed result contains output data. The produced property specifies a reasoning process produced an instance of output data.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:resultReasonerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#resultReasoner

A software application performs reasoning to computes results. The resultReasoner property specifies result has an associated software application.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:summarizationOfop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#summarizationOf

A summarized explanation bundle can contain the most important information from an explanation bundle. The summarizationOf property specifies an explanation bundle is a summarization of a explanation bundle.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:usedDataop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#usedData

A reasoning process uses input data to compute its results. The usedData property specifies a reasoning process used an instance of input data.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:usedRuleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#usedRule

Data derivations use rules to perform derivations. The usedRule property specifies a data derivation used a rule.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

:wasInvolvedComputingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#wasInvolvedComputing

A reasoning process performs data derivations to compute results. The wasInvolvedComputing property specifies a data derivation was involved in computing a result.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v3#
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
prov
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfg
http://www.w3.org/2004/03/trix/rdfg-1/
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#

This visual layout has been adapted from the FOAF Vocabulary Specification, the PRISSMA Vocabulary Specification, and LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment.